Is Photography Art?

Photography – Is it art?

This question has troubled the art world since the very first photographic images were created and fixed in the 1830s. There are those (mainly painters) that argue that since the images were formed mechanically they were of a less ‘fine’ form such as tapestry or fabric printing. The argument rages around the creativity and human endeavour required. As the twentieth century progressed and art changed dramatically it is clear that photography became very serious art indeed. Those that wish to further their understanding of this debate (and fry their brains at the same time) should tackle Walter Benjamin’s great essay of 1936, The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction.

This digression  however is really only to introduce a second painting from the recent Ashmolean exhibition: America’s Cool Modernism. I was taken by the simplicity and directness of Edward Steichen’s Le Tournesol (The Sunflower) in the first room.

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Edward Steichen, Le Tournesol (The Sunflower), 1922, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Edward Steichen (1879-1973) was born in Luxembourg, but moved to USA in 1881. He was heavily influenced by European Modernism and spent time in France before the First World War. The painting of 1922 evokes that period of modernism inspired by the machine and the crisp lines and vibrant colours are typical of a movement called precisionism. Whilst vaguely figurative Stecichen wanted to streamline nature into its basic form. I simply love how the artist has rendered the tone of the vase but most of all the brilliance of the flower. Does it represent the sun, or maybe the flash of the camera. Hence my digression on photography.

As well as being a very accomplished modern painter, Edward Steichen was a truly great pioneer in the world of photography. His biography could be regarded as the definitive study of photography as fine art in twentieth century America. He had developed a partnership with Alfred Stieglitz as early as 1900 and worked on photography in magazine work through to 1917, when he entered the war. He became depressed after the war and in 1923 abandoned painting completely in a fit of rage which saw him destroy many of his works, turning entirely to photography. The Sunflower only survived as Steichen had lent it temporarily  to a friend. So despite his undoubted quality as a machine age modern painter it was his photography and understanding of America which made him.

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Edward Steichen, Flatiron, 1904, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

His full career in photography is well worth a read but highlighted by being a photographer for the fashion magazines Vogue and Vanity Fair, and from 1947-61 was the Director of Photography at The Museum of Modern Art in New York.

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Edward Steichen, Gloria Swanson, 1924, (for Vogue Magazine)

So where am I in the debate? Well as (I believe) Art is a mix of creativity (construction) and dexterity (technique), then clearly it must be an art form in its own right – I just do not go out of my way to hunt out photography exhibitions. Now digital imaging, which I see as more akin to painting, well that is different and well worth seeking out. Maybe Steichen’s Sunflower foresaw the digital age. You decide.

Stained Glass at Gloucester

Fotheringhay was a great day out and made me think a little bit more about dead kings and cathedrals. Leicester Cathedral is quite an attraction since the bones of Richard III arrived. But are they really the last Plantagenet’s relics or a very elaborate modern hoax. You must be your own judge. Well at least Gloucester has a genuine King buried in its great Cathedral. Well if you believe that one…good luck. There is no proof it was even the alleged murdered sovereign at his own funeral, let alone whose body it is in the tomb. But oh what a tomb – probably the finest example of existing fourteenth century masonry and alabaster carving anywhere in the land. Do go and see.

Of course this short post is not about imaginary dead kings. It is about twenty first century stained glass. Well away from Edward’s tomb at Gloucester is the Thomas Chapel in the south east corner. A small chapel with fairly unexciting architecture compared to the rest but containing Thomas Denny’s 2014 stained glass windows depicting Thomas meeting the risen Christ, and the Creation of psalm 148. The window is dedicated to the Gloucestershire poet, Ivor Gurney, and reveals all manner of images in different lights.

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Thomas Denny’s triptych of Windows for the Thomas Chapel, Gloucester Cathedral (2014)

It is perhaps fitting that Denny also produced two windows for Leicester Cathedral. Inspired by the life of Richard III.

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One of the Thomas Denny windows inspired by King Richard III at Leicester Cathedral (2016)

I found the Thomas Chapel on a visit earlier this week to Gloucester Cathedral. This magnificent building has so many great architectural delights to take in but occasionally it is worth avoiding the big stuff and just sit and enjoy a quiet corner. Let everyone else go and hunt for the great Norman nave, the important history of the Perpendicular, or the Harry Potter cloisters and just take in the quiet solitude of the pilgrims church.

A question – Which is the largest Great East Window; Gloucester or York?

Fotheringhay and Royal History

Sandy Denny, while with Fairport Convention, wrote her very haunting Fotheringay in 1969 about imprisonment. Was it about Mary Queen of Scots or was it an allegory of the medieval, or general captivity of women? Virtually nothing exists now of Fotheringhay Castle. The Great Hall where the Stuart pretender Queen met her executioner in 1587 is gone; only the old keep mound, part of the silted up moat and a railed up piece of stone are there for the tourist. But the quiet solitude of the site and the village just hint at that lonely event so long ago. Do go to see Mary’s tomb in Westminster Abbey next to Queen Elizabeth’s to understand the importance of her life though.

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Artists impression of the sixteenth century castle at Fotheringhay with The Great Hall

Fotheringhay throws up another delight however, and the reason for our visit. The Church of St Mary and All Souls must be one of the finest examples of the fifteenth century English Perpendicular style as well as being the mausoleum for the Yorkist Dynasty of the Wars of the Roses a hundred years earlier. The collegiate church at Fotheringhay was founded by Richard, the second Duke of York, killed at Agincourt. Buried together at the altar are the third Duke and his brother Edmund, Duke of Rutland, both killed at the Battle of Wakefield in 1460 pursuing the Yorkist cause. The Yorkist symbol of the fetterlock and falcon is everywhere. The most interesting being at the centre of the fan vault below the tower. Look for the wonderful painted pulpit, given to the church by Edward IV. 

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Interior of Fotheringhay Church with Fan Vault and Yorkist Falcon and Fetterlock

The real delight is the architecture. The fifteenth century parish church is pure English Perpendicular with a marvellous lantern tower at the western end. The York Window at the east end displays the symbols and arms of the Yorkists and was donated by the Richard III Society in 1975. What makes the building even more significant is its undoubted influence on St George’s, Windsor (Harry and Meghan). King Edward IV, who was brought up at Fotheringay was the major sponsor of the fifteenth century chapel at Windsor and it is impossible not to see the influence. How does this come about you ask. The parish church we see now is only part of the original fifteenth century structure. It was built on to the Duke of York’s collegiate church and cloisters, subsequently destroyed during the Dissolution. A model shows the original fourteen bay Perpendicular chapel with complete Nave, choir and lady chapel. The influence is complete when you learn that St George’s chapel was also to have a lantern tower. The fortunes changed after the Battle of Bosworth and the Windsor money ran out as the royal building programme moved to King’s at Cambridge, the Tudor project from Lancastrian (King Henry VI) origins. The lantern was never constructed.

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Model of the Duke of York’s full Collegiate church in its fifteenth century glory.

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St George’s Chapel, Windsor, 1475-1530.

So go to Fotheringay and have a drink or meal in the Falcon (named after the Yorkist symbol). Wander around this quiet village and consider the turmoil of the past. The wars with France, the Roses Civil war, the birthplace of Richard III and the religious conflicts of Tudor England. Imagine what an important castle stood above the River Nene, and where all the stone has gone from it and the college. Where are you with the polarised positions of Richard III or Mary Queen of Scots? And then… all this should inspire the tragic Sandy Denny to pen her beautiful allegory of imprisonment.

How often she has gazed from castle windows o’er,
And watched the daylight passing within her captive wall,

Tomorrow at this hour she will be far away, Much farther than these islands,             Or the lonely Fotheringay

 

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The Church of St Mary and All Souls Church, Fotheringhay, Northamptonshire, c1434.

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The York Window, donated by the Richard III Society 1975. Note the boar, Richard’s symbol.

Oxford (again) and Modern Drawing

Frantic. That is how modern living can be described. Last Saturday we were in Oxford showing off the Pitt Rivers Museum to Ellie, and finding a good seat for the World Cup Quarter final. Then all the business of a week in retirement, not to mention exit from said competition and here I am back in Oxford again. This time at Modern Art Oxford, for a rare drawing exhibition.

Drawing as an art form had a very difficult twentieth century when attempts were made by art schools to render it obsolete. Luckily we have all come to our senses and drawing is back. Not just the renaissance and historical drawings that the Ashmolean, Fitzwilliam and British Museum are famous for (not to mention the Royal Collection at Windsor) but modern and post modern gems.

The latest exhibition at Modern Art Oxford,  A Slice Through the World “updates and challenges some of the ideas tested during an important moment in Oxford art history, namely the international group show”; Drawing 1972. There is so much to see here that shows the modern artists at their creative best, but not ignoring traditional ideas and materials. Aura- Natasha Ogunji opens the show with The proof, an undersea volcano, attraction, extraction, distraction, 2017. Ink, graphite and thread on tracing paper display several levels in the artist’s mind and the lightness of the paper shimmers in the breeze within the gallery. Are the figure(s) gods above the abstract lava flows? Blue flows replacing the red of molten rock and are the threads part of the human figures or part of the lava flow? Take your time to take in the messages. Leave the frantic world outside.

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Aura-Natasha Ogunji, The Proof, an undersea volcano, attraction, extraction, distraction, 2017.

Laid out on trestle tables like an exam room (Oxford) are 100 pages of an atlas of Europe, pages blacked out with graphite, except for single white spots denoting each settlement. Are we being asked to look at our busy continent as if we would view the night sky. There are no borders here, no history, no prejudices, no conflict – just that tranquility and intrigue we enjoy when we look at the stars on a stlll moonless night. And yet there is the blackness of the sea which like space is the emptiness that is necessary to define the boundaries.

There are, of course, traditional pencil on paper figurative work and the best of these can be found in the Piper Room. The theme here is that the artist has adopted other media, mainly photography, and created their own forms. Most importantly the moment has been celebrated by the artist rather than simply copying the event in film. Look closely at Nidhul Chamekh’s Trois Poses De Fadhel Sassi, 2016, made from burned bread and charcoal on canvas. The original photos were of Fadhel Sassi, a Tunisian professor being assassinated During the bread riots of 1984. Where there was no movement in the original, Chamekh has subtly reframed them and reorganised them to tell his story. Grim as it is it is important for journalists to record the event and for the artist to prick our consciousness  the spiritual meaning.

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Nidhul Chamekh, Trois Poses De Fadhel Sassi, 2016

Next door is Barbara Walkers brilliant graphite on embossed paper, Untiltled, 2018 with its relevance to this years commemoration. The medium allows for the military actions of the black soldiers, marginalised by history to receive a special presence, juxtaposed with the embossed removal of their white colleagues. 

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Barbara Walker, Untitled 2018

To me there are three types of drawing to see at exhibitions. There are the preparatory sketches necessary in the development of paintings and sculpture. There are the drawings and cartoons that have been created through history which, due to the fame of the artist and his other works, have become works of art in their own right. Then there are those drawings that are created to stand alone and individual. This exhibition at Oxford is a celebration of these in the modern era. Set in the calmness of this wonderful inner city space these works invite a reverence that is not unlike a medieval cathedral. Don’t rush through but take time and the spirit of these works will reveal themselves to you. What you see in a drawing is more of the artist’s mind than probably any other art form.

They are of course a few high energy works. Look for Disgrace I, II, III & IV, 2009, where Kate Davis, while acknowledging Amedeo Modigliano’s vacuous female nudes, has also chosen to confuse your senses with her own image. She has taken / appropriated some of Modigliani’s drawings from a monograph and superimposed lines and marks which she traced around her own body. While your first impression is one of desecration you start to see the intermingling of the bodies and some substitution, and again what she is saying with the strength and emotion lost in other media.

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Kate Davis, Disgrace, 2009

You may gather from all this that I believe in drawing as the primary elemental artform , even the essence of art going back to the caves and the starting point for everything else. Enjoy the great drawings of the renaissance of course but also come here for raw beauty and emotional consciousness.

A Slice Through the World is at Modern Art Oxford until 9th September

Southampton

I handed in my final essay this week which is a great relief. Having enjoyed the architecture of Frank Lloyd Wright* and the sculptural beauty of Barbara Hepworth I think I need a little time with some two dimensional art. And what better place than Southampton. Just a few minutes from the station is the civic and cultural centre with its City Art Gallery, Sea City Museum and Solent University’s John Hansard Gallery.

The City Art Gallery first. Bridget on the course recommended the Gallery, maybe because she lives here. The main gallery is on the first floor, a long room with a very eclectic mix of mainly nineteenth and twentieth century paintings. There are the Camden Town Group here, the London Group, Graham Sutherland and some interesting work from Cornwall, together with some very fine small bronzes by Epstein, Rodin and Degas. All in all, I thought that was a quaint little provincial collection – where next?

But then I ventured into the side galleries. An early Italian room houses a superb altarpiece by Allegretto Nuzi (1315-1373), and there is an intriguing room with a series of gouache preparatory paintings on the subject of Perseus by Edward Burne Jones (1875-1885). The final work, commissioned by the Prime Minister, Balfour, was never completed so these preparatory paintings are the only full series. It is the story of Perseus’s defeat of the gorgon Medusa and his rescue of Andromeda from the sea monster. Burne-Jones is an acquired taste but a must see nonetheless.

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Perseus and the Sea Nymphs, Edward Burne Jones (1877), Southampton City Art Gallery

A very interesting twist on displaying popular lively work was to ask various members of Southampton Football Club to pick their favourites. I was particularly taken by  a remake of Ford Madox Brown’s, The Work, chosen by James Searle, the Internal Communications Manager. Painted in almost the same spot in Hampstead by David Redfern in 1977, the machinery is added but all the old favourites are present, the “honest labourer, the idler, the unemployed, those employing mental labour.”

Redfern, David, b.1947; Work

Work, David Redfern (1977)

In another Gallery was a special exhibition by George Shaw entitled ‘My Back to Nature” – a pun on his creating the work in the studio. The theme is what happens in the artist’s local woods – a lot of growing up, initiation and a few unsavoury goings on to delight the eye. I first saw  the artists work at the Royal Academy in 2011, and was astonished by the use of ‘Humbrol’ modellers paint in serious art. The subject matter then was derelict scenes on  a Coventry housing estate and the woods of this exhibition are adjoining the estate. This new exhibition, commissioned by the National Gallery is touring the country.

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The Rude Screen (2015), George Shaw, from My Back to Nature (National Gallery 2016)

The final gallery was showing the work of Kelly Richardson an advocate for reminding us how far we have gone in the human destruction of the planet. Her ‘Pillars of Dawn’ are digital painted bare monochromatic trees in the unnatural light of dawn – or is it dusk? I have added Orion Tide (2013) on the main banner as an image that particularly took me. The audio visual video presentation showed launching pillars of fire from a desert landscape. Are they rockets, escaping space craft or simply what they appear to be, plumes of flame?

On the doorstep is Sea City with its exhibitions of The Titanic and Southampton Football Club (again) and the John Hansard Gallery with an Artist Room special on Gerard Richter. More of these another time.

My Back to Nature is at the Southampton City Gallery until1st September.

Pillars of Dawn is at the Southampton City Gallery until 6th October.

  • Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959) was a great American Architect who just happened, also, to be one of Paul Simon’s pen names for Art Garfunkel.

Solid Light Works at Wakefield

I was in Leeds again this week meeting my tutor to discuss my research project (an unlikely mixing of the minds of architect, Frank Lloyd Wright, and sculptor, Barbara Hepworth). Having discussed where the project is going we decided to make another visit to the Hepworth Wakefield Gallery to see some archives and view the galleries. Having posted on the sculptor quite recently Hepworth at Henley-on-Thames  I thought it would be a good idea to see the Anthony McCall exhibition: Solid Light Works, which was being shown there.

McCall is a most interesting person working in a very specialist conceptual area of art. Born in England and educated at Bromley Art College he specialised in geometry, film and the effects of light. He moved to NewYork in 1973 and has resided there since, having had solo exhibitions in all the major galleries across the globe and many retrospectives. Now 72, his Hepworth Wakefield show brings to the fore all his youthful enthusiasm particularly in his sketchbook drawings and light projections.

 

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One of the many sketchbooks on display of Anthony McCall’s geometric drawings.

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Leaving (with two minute silence), Anthony McCall, 2006.

The wealth of drawings reveal McCall’s wonderful understanding of the geometry of light. His application is very minimalistic emphasised by his iconic Leaving (with Two Minute Silence) from 2006, and the performance piece, Five Minute Drawing, with its accompanying video. Here the artist scribes an arc and straight line with paper, string and charcoal.

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Five minute drawing, Anthony McCall,

The highlights of this show, however, are the transformation of the drawings into the spectator space using monochromatic white light projected into a smoke filled void. There are two of the gallery’s spaces dedicated to these. The spectator is guided into the matt black hazy room before emerging into the projection area. The experience is exhilarating as you find yourself moving about the space influencing the direction of the art, as the show itself transforms through time. Maybe the spirit of Isaac Newton or Euclid himself is in the room with you as the constraints of space, light and time seems to disappear and you feel the strength of the geometry and the piecing light rays playing with your senses. Still photography really doesn’t capture the fullness of these projections, working on all the senses.

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Endless vistas of  skies and seas that melt and merge, Anthony McCall.

There is much here to see and value;  the inspiration that is Anthony McCall is brought to this  award winning gallery, especially if you, (like me) enjoy the wonder that is geometry.

Solid Light Works is at The Hepworth Wakefield until 3rd June and is a must see.

A Trip to the Barber

Recently I visited the Barber Institute at Birmingham University. Easy to get to – train to University and keep walking. I went to see an exhibition entitled Rhythm of Light, a celebration of the so called Scottish Colorists. These are a group of turn of the (20th) century Scottish artists who discovered light and colour in Paris and the South of France. I enjoyed the exhibition but to be honest having enjoyed the works of S J Peploe and J D Ferguson for years I found the curation somewhat tame. Some of the work of these two artists in Edinburgh and Perth is simply stunning so while the exhibition was good and has been well received it wasn’t for me this time. 

It was ironic that probably the best Fergusson in the building was His 1902 Portrait of Jean Maconochie in the permanent collection. Well I suppose it’s a matter of taste. 

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J D Fergusson,  Jean Maconochie, 1902, The Barber Institute, Birmingham.

However I did spend a little time in front of one picture in the permanent collection which made me ponder on a few things. There is a painting of The Madonna and Child and Infant St John the Baptist. The title notes attributes the picture to Sandro Botticelli, around 1480. My first thoughts was how wonderful it was that this painting was still here hanging in Birmingham over 500 years after it was created. I pondered further on the events around Birmingham and Florence all those years ago. Both experiencing royal civil wars, both about to see great dynastic changes which would eventually challenge the heart of religious doctrine of the day. 

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Sandro Botticelli, Madonna and Child and Infant St John the Baptist, 1480, The Barber Instiute, Birmingham

But then I thought – Botticelli – that’s interesting – How strong is the attribution? Is it an autograph work? Is it with collaboration? Is it a factory work? Well the notes accepts that Botticelli had a very successful studio but claims the very fine work makes it the master. So what does my “complete Works” at home tell me. Well it becomes very interesting. It turns out that Botticelli painted this scene several times and my oracle claims the original of this painting is in the Galleria Palatina in the Palazzio Pitti in Florence and is attributed by all the experts. A reverse copy exists in Paris and is partially attributed. The Birmingham painting is a second reverse copy with the same dimensions as the Paris version and the same partial attribution. So I now know how busy these studios were back in the fourteen hundreds – step back Andy Warhol!

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Sandro Botticelli, Madonna and Child and Infant St John the Baptist, 1480, Galleria Palatina, Palazzio Pitti, Florence. (Note the reverse to the Birmingham version)

But then I thought – The Bible makes no mention of this meeting. Did the infant Baptist meet the Christ Child? There are numerous Renaissance and Baroque paintings devoted to this event. It arises from some of the apocryphal accounts of the Life of Christ abundant in the Middle Ages and refers to Jesus meeting his cousin on the holy family’s return from Egypt. These must have echoes of Luke recounting the unborn John recognising Christ in the womb (Luke 1:41).

But so to the painting – it is gorgeous. I hope my photograph does justice to the colours. It is difficult for me to judge on the level of restoration but the colours in egg tempera are just wonderful. And just look at the gold on The Madonna’s shawl. But most of all look at the faces. I am not sure if Italians have ever looked like Botticelli’s Madonna’s or Venus’s – but wow anyway. Most of all look at the Christ Child’s eyes. From a distance they look closed but get closer and you see just what a great artist Botticelli was – just open and clearly focussed on John. 

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Madonna and Child and Infant St John the Baptist (Birmingham) – detail.

It is worth taking time with a painting and certainly worth it with a truly great painter like Botticelli to see how really good The Old Masters were.

The Rhythm of Light is on until 13th May and is seriously worth it but do take a few minutes with Botticelli. You will not regret it.

Royal Brighton

Looking at the Royal Pavilion tells you much about the philosophy of pleasure as enjoyed by George IV and Victoria. George saw Brighton as a a place to enjoy and had this sumptuous building, converted from the original Marine Pavilion by John Nash between 1815 – 1822, to lavish enjoyment on his court. The architecture and the decoration reflect an expression of extrovert pleasure. Close to the centre of Brighton and with the growing interest in the sea, Nash created this Indo-Saracenic Palace for the King’s delight displaying the increasing Eastern spiritual flavour with its domes and minarets.

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The Garden Front of the Royal Pavilion, Brighton

The two main interior spaces are the Banqueting Room and the Music Room. The walls of the Banqueting Room are adorned with bold oriental illustrations by the designer, Robert Jones and the highlight is the chandelier held in the claws of a silver dragon weighing in at just over one ton. The highlights of the Music Room are the decorations by Frederick Crace, the Rock Clock (c1735) and the (restored) Axminster carpet. Unfortunately the Royal Saloon, with its sumptuous Egyptian couch, with crocodile feet, was closed for refurbishment for our visit but there is much to be seen in the state rooms, corridors and the upstairs rooms. Although mainly restored the flavour of excess is visible throughout; do look out for the bright yellow hand painted wall papers in Queen Victoria’s apartments.

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The Banqueting Room, Brighton, with silver gilt, pedestal lamps and chandelier.

Which brings us to Victoria. Her pleasure was much more introspective preferring the company of her family, and finding Brighton far to brash and close to the people. Having decided on the more remote Osborne House on the Isle of Wight she stripped the palace bare, to furnish Windsor and Buckingham Palace, before selling to the Corporation of Brighton in 1850. She and others have returned much of the property over the years and a long term loan from the current Queen Elizabeth II has allowed the original feeling of excess to return. Amongst the accoutrements look out especially for the eight pedestal lights and the Regency silver gilt in the Banqueting Room and the various eighteenth and nineteenth century pianos, reflecting the Prince Regent’s love of music. The list of items to note is almost endless.

We finished our trip with a look around the Art Gallery which is a quaint provincial affair resembling an emporium in part. Highlight for me was the permanent exhibition of Glyn Philpot Paintings. The family gift to Brighton shows Philpot as a highly understated twentieth century figurative painter, perhaps not fully embracing Modernism. We also love seeing the British Abstractist, William Gear, wherever we go and exhibited here are Caged Yellow 1971 and Ascending Orange 1969. Also worth seeing is the exhibits of fashion and the tastefully curated rooms looking at  transology and exhibitionism.

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Ascending Yellow, William Gear, 1971, Brighton Art Gallery.

Brighton is a great place to visit for its different approach to the world of pleasure (we were here for the Marathon) and neither the Pavilion, the museum or, indeed, the City will let the visitor down.

Congratulations, Dave for completing with a PB time of 4 hrs 27 mins

Hepworth at Henley-on-Thames

We recently had a lunch out with an American friend who decreed in the conversation that Henley-on-Thames was the destroyer of ambition. Whether this is true or not is a moot point but it certainly is a beautiful place to rest a while. The conversation came from my describing a very short time spent there recently. A beautiful sunny day; I could have languished by the river for hours but just had enough time for an hour at The River and Rowing Museum. This gem, designed by David Chipperfield, of course houses exhibits associated with rowing on the Thames but also contains galleries for other tastes. Currently there is a charming little walk through dedicated to Kenneth Grahame’s Wind in the Willows. In times of so much superb children’s literature you forget what a delightful and thought-provoking tale of riverside heroes this is. Of course I did not go to the museum for Ratty, Toad and Mole. It was Finding Form, a view of Barbara Hepworth, The sculptor who did so much for British Modernism that drew me. The exhibition, curated by the museum’s Natalie Patel showed Hepworth, the worker of natural materials to great effect.

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The showpiece is Spring, 1966, a bronze cast including the two concepts so relevant to Hepworth – the hole and the string. The hole, which she discovered in 1928 and never left gives her the insight to the interior of form and it’s duality with the exterior. It is not simply a window but an emotional entrée. Likewise the strings which she employed from around 1937 onwards signify the tension in her work and maybe musicality, probably from some of her European Abstract artist associates of the thirties. Hepworth came late to casting as she had favoured carving natural materials in her early career. Spring is based on an elm carving of 1965, Oval form with Strings and Colour, 1965, in the Metropolitan in New York.  The Limestone carving, Bicentric Form, 1949, is exhibited representing both the figurative form and the menhirs, standing stones which became so familiar from her days in Cornwall. Being brought up in Yorkshire and residing for many years in St Ives her strong natural landscape always featured strongly in her work. These two feature among six works on loan from various UK galleries including the Tate. They feature all Hepworth’s sculptural methods. Painting and drawing were not major parts of Hepworth’s oeuvre of work but the exhibition does include two geometric drawings which inform the tension in her works.

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As a late developer in appreciating the full impact Barbara Hepworth had on British Art I now take every opportunity to visit her works. There is much to see at Henley and the Rowing Museum but for the short time available this exhibition is a must and is on until 3rd June 2018.